Wikinger Berserker

Wikinger Berserker Wild wie Hunde oder Wölfe

Als Berserker wird in mittelalterlichen skandinavischen Quellen ein im Rausch kämpfender In der Geschichte von Halfdan, dem Schützling der Brana, werden die Begriffe „Berserker“ und „Wikinger“ sogar synonym gebraucht. Die Stilisierung. Als Berserker wird in mittelalterlichen skandinavischen Quellen ein im Rausch kämpfender Mensch bezeichnet, der keine Schmerzen oder Wunden mehr wahrnimmt. Über diese Art von Kriegern, die auf der Seite verschiedener germanischer Stämme kämpften. Die Berserker waren gefürchtete Gegner. Diese Wikinger versetzen sich in einen blutigen Rausch und fielen im Mittelalter wie wilde Tiere über. Die Wikinger Berserker waren Anhänger Odins, des Gottes der Krieger und Verzückten; sie gehorchten dessen Befehl, auch wenn es die. Waren so die echten Wikinger? Met saufende Berserker, die plünderten wie nur die Hunnen vor ihnen? Furchterregende Krieger mit Hörnern.

Wikinger Berserker

ksjberlare.site - Kaufen Sie Wikinger - Berserker des Nordens günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und. Als Berserker wird in mittelalterlichen skandinavischen Quellen ein im Rausch kämpfender In der Geschichte von Halfdan, dem Schützling der Brana, werden die Begriffe „Berserker“ und „Wikinger“ sogar synonym gebraucht. Die Stilisierung. Die Wikinger Berserker waren Anhänger Odins, des Gottes der Krieger und Verzückten; sie gehorchten dessen Befehl, auch wenn es die.

Designs showing warriors clad in what could be bearskins occur, among other places, on the Torslund plates from Öland, thought to date from the seventh century.

The berserkers often comprised an elite troop in addition to the guard or the army in general.

In sea battles they were usually stationed at the prow, to take the leading point of an attack. The berserkers are spoken of as fearsome enemies to meet.

They were often said to be so intoxicated by battle-lust that they bit their shields, attacked boulders and trees and even killed each other while they were waiting for battles to begin.

A set of chessmen from the 12th century found on the Isle of Lewis in the Scottish Hebrides includes a chess piece of a warrior biting his shield.

The title of berserker is thought sometimes to have been inherited from father to son, and there are known examples of entire families of berserkers.

One such family known from the sagas is Egil Skallagrimson. The expression is also used in relation to warriors who are not thought to have been wearing any distinctive uniform of animal skins.

The earliest written sources of what might be berserkers are found in Roman writings from the first century AD.

In his book Germania , the historian Tacitus describes correspondingly fantastic elite warriors among the German tribes in northern Europe.

They wore neither helmet nor coat of mail, and used only a light shield to protect themselves. The heruli are said to have had a kingdom on Fyn.

This may have survived until into the sixth century, but more of them had previously been driven out of Scandinavia by the Danes.

The heruli often took service as warrior bands in the Roman army. They appeared in the same way as the berserkers, in small groups in the service of chieftains or kings, and there is a possibility that the origins of the berserkers may be found among the mysterious heruli.

The berserkers are often mentioned in sagas, skaldic poems [composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking and Middle Ages] and other literature from the Middle Ages.

In the sagas, which were written in a Christian context, the memory of these warriors has been extended to become a label for those who stand out from the norms of society: thugs and freebooters, pirates and so on.

The descriptions in the sagas of violent men and killers cannot all be linked to the berserkers, however. And the Old Norse saga texts never call the berserkers mad or insane.

They regard the berserkers as something more than just socially problematic and unusually aggressive. That explanation gradually became more popular, and remains so today.

Ödmann based his hypothesis on reports about Siberian shamans, but it is important to note that he had no personal observations of the effects of eating this type of mushroom.

White agaric has also been suggested as a cause of the berserk fury, but considering how poisonous this is, it is quite unthinkable that it would be eaten.

Eating agaric mushrooms can lead to depression and can make the user apathetic, in addition to its hallucinogenic effects.

Berserkers are certainly never described as apathetic! Poisoning with the fungus Claviceps purpurea has also been suggested — it contains a compound used to synthesise the hallucinogen LSD lysergic acid diethylamide.

However, if mushrooms had been so important for the berserkers, they would surely have been mentioned in the sagas, which they are not.

The theory is that the groups of warriors, through ritual processes carried out before a battle such as biting the edges of their shields , went into a self-induced hypnotic trance.

In this dissociative state they lost conscious control of their actions, which are then directed subconsciously.

People in this state seem remote, have little awareness of their surroundings and have reduced awareness of pain and increased muscle strength.

Critical thinking and normal social inhibitions weaken, but the people affected are not unconscious.

The condition is followed by a major emotional catharsis in the form of tiredness and exhaustion, sometimes followed by sleep. Researchers think that the short-term aim of the trance may have been to achieve an abreaction of strong aggressive, destructive and sadistic impulses in a socially defined role.

The Old Norse social order and religion were able to accommodate this type of behaviour, and it is understandable that the phenomenon disappeared after the introduction of Christianity.

A Christian society considered such rituals and actions as demonic and thought that they must have resulted from supernatural influences.

Berserkers are attested to in numerous Old Norse sources. The Old Norse form of the word was berserkr plural berserkir.

It likely means " bear -shirt" compare the Middle English word serk , meaning shirt , "someone who wears a coat made out of a bear's skin ".

It is proposed by some authors that the northern warrior tradition originated in hunting magic. The scenes show his Roman soldiers plus auxiliaries and allies from Rome's border regions, including tribal warriors from both sides of the Rhine.

There are warriors depicted as barefoot, bare-chested, bearing weapons and helmets that are associated with the Germani.

Scene 36 on the column shows some of these warriors standing together, with some wearing bearhoods and some wearing wolfhoods.

In the spring of , four cast-bronze dies, the Torslunda plates , were found by Erik Gustaf Pettersson and Anders Petter Nilsson in a cairn on the lands of the farm No 5 Björnhovda in Torslunda parish, Öland, Sweden.

Torslunda helmet: Odin followed by a berserker [9]. Torslunda helmet: two warriors with boars upon their helmets [9]. Woodcut image from [9].

It is proposed by some authors that the berserkers drew their power from the bear and were devoted to the bear cult , which was once widespread across the northern hemisphere.

In battle, the berserkers were subject to fits of frenzy. They would howl like wild beasts, foamed at the mouth, and gnawed the iron rim of their shields.

According to belief, during these fits they were immune to steel and fire, and made great havoc in the ranks of the enemy.

When the fever abated they were weak and tame. Accounts can be found in the sagas. To "go berserk" was to "hamask", which translates as "change form", in this case, as with the sense "enter a state of wild fury".

Some scholars have interpreted those who could transform as a berserker was typically as "hamrammr" or "shapestrong" — literally able to shapeshift into a bear's form.

He slew more men with his fore paws than any five of the king's champions. They were said to wear the pelt of a wolf when they entered battle.

This is called 'going berserk'. In Norse mythology, the wild boar was an animal sacred to the Vanir. The boar-warriors fought at the lead of a battle formation known as Svinfylking "the boar's head" that was wedge-shaped, and two of their champions formed the rani "snout".

They have been described as the masters of disguise, and of escape with an intimate knowledge of the landscape. Berserkers appear prominently in a multitude of other sagas and poems.

Many earlier sagas portrayed berserkers as bodyguards, elite soldiers, and champions of kings. I'll ask of the berserks, you tasters of blood, Those intrepid heroes, how are they treated, Those who wade out into battle?

Wolf-skinned they are called. In battle They bear bloody shields. Red with blood are their spears when they come to fight. They form a closed group.

The prince in his wisdom puts trust in such men Who hack through enemy shields. The "tasters of blood" in this passage are thought to be ravens, which feasted on the slain.

The Icelandic historian and poet Snorri Sturluson — wrote the following description of berserkers in his Ynglinga saga :. His Odin 's men rushed forwards without armour, were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit their shields, and were strong as bears or wild oxen, and killed people at a blow, but neither fire nor iron told upon them.

This was called Berserkergang. King Harald Fairhair's use of berserkers as " shock troops " broadened his sphere of influence.

Emphasis has been placed on the frenzied nature of the berserkers, hence the modern sense of the word "berserk". However, the sources describe several other characteristics that have been ignored or neglected by modern commentators.

Snorri's assertion that "neither fire nor iron told upon them" is reiterated time after time. The sources frequently state that neither edged weapons nor fire affected the berserks, although they were not immune to clubs or other blunt instruments.

For example:. These men asked Halfdan to attack Hardbeen and his champions man by man; and he not only promised to fight, but assured himself the victory with most confident words.

When Hardbeen heard this, a demoniacal frenzy suddenly took him; he furiously bit and devoured the edges of his shield; he kept gulping down fiery coals; he snatched live embers in his mouth and let them pass down into his entrails; he rushed through the perils of crackling fires; and at last, when he had raved through every sort of madness, he turned his sword with raging hand against the hearts of six of his champions.

It is doubtful whether this madness came from thirst for battle or natural ferocity. Then with the remaining band of his champions he attacked Halfdan, who crushed him with a hammer of wondrous size, so that he lost both victory and life; paying the penalty both to Halfdan, whom he had challenged, and to the kings whose offspring he had violently ravished Similarly, Hrolf Kraki 's champions refuse to retreat "from fire or iron".

Another frequent motif refers to berserkers blunting their enemy's blades with spells or a glance from their evil eyes. This appears as early as Beowulf where it is a characteristic attributed to Grendel.

Both the fire eating and the immunity to edged weapons are reminiscent of tricks popularly ascribed to fakirs.

By the 12th century, organised berserker war-bands had disappeared. The Lewis Chessmen , found on the Isle of Lewis Outer Hebrides , Scotland but thought to be of Norse manufacture, include berserkers depicted biting their shields.

Scholar Hilda Ellis-Davidson draws a parallel between berserkers and the mention by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII AD — in his book De cerimoniis aulae byzantinae "Book of Ceremonies of the Byzantine court" of a " Gothic Dance" performed by members of his Varangian Guard Norse warriors in the service of the Byzantine Empire , who took part wearing animal skins and masks: she believes this may have been connected with berserker rites.

This condition has been described as follows:. This fury, which was called berserkergang, occurred not only in the heat of battle, but also during laborious work.

Men who were thus seized performed things which otherwise seemed impossible for human power. This condition is said to have begun with shivering, chattering of the teeth, and chill in the body, and then the face swelled and changed its colour.

With this was connected a great hot-headedness, which at last gave over into a great rage, under which they howled as wild animals, bit the edge of their shields, and cut down everything they met without discriminating between friend or foe.

When this condition ceased, a great dulling of the mind and feebleness followed, which could last for one or several days.

In this way, other allies would know to keep their distance. Some scholars propose that certain examples of berserker rage had been induced voluntarily by the consumption of drugs such as the hallucinogenic mushroom Amanita muscaria [31] [33] [34] or massive amounts of alcohol.

One theory of the berserkers suggests that the physical manifestations of the berserker alongside their rage was a form of self-induced hysteria.

Initiated before battle through a ritualistic process, also known as effektnummer , which included actions such as shield-biting and animalistic howling.

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Wikinger Berserker - Inhaltsverzeichnis

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Wikinger Berserker Video

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Wikinger Berserker Video

Berserker - Mythos oder Realität?

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